The Dutch word for who is wie. If I could only master "good morning" I would feel a lot better. It's an essential phrase to use when you are trying to meet new people in the neighborhood. And to make matters worse, when the Dutch say it back to you, it doesn't sound the way our teacher says it. It almost sounds like they are saying, "Good morning" in English. Now you see why I really need some candy!
Now that I have told you how moeilijk difficult Dutch is, I have to concede that I realize English is no picnic. Through, though, thought?
I guess it's true what they say about how people in glass houses shouldn't throw stones. There are some really great words in Dutch, however. One of my favorites is the word for clogs which is klompen. I have yet to see anyone here actually wearing wooden shoes, however, or even the Dansko clogs that I wore nearly every day as a teacher, so sadly I don't have much cause to use my favorite word. Our teacher, Nelleke, is a former speech therapist, and possibly the most patient person in Amsterdam.
She also has incredible self-control, because she hasn't once laughed at us. I'm looking forward to knowing enough Dutch so I can have some small conversations with people here, and not feel like an outsider.
Some days I feel like the big clumsy duck in the back, struggling to keep up with the graceful speakers in the front. In addition to the Dutch language lessons that we take twice a week, we also had a four hour training on Dutch culture last Saturday. I'll admit that I was skeptical, both when I needed to fill out an online survey about my cultural assumptions and when I found out I had to give up most of a sunny Saturday the sun always a cause for celebration in Amsterdam, especially when it ventures out on a weekend.
The day ending up being really interesting, despite my skepticism in advance. We learned things like how the Dutch value consensus in decision-making, and how when you celebrate a birthday, you bring in your own cake. We learned about the basis for some expressions like "Dutch treat" the Dutch are, well, let's just say frugal , and the history of the infamous Dutch open-mindedness.
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This is from an exhibit at The Amsterdam City Museum. They were just a bit ahead of the U. Download PDF Download. Author links open overlay panel Moniek M. Schaars Eliane Segers Ludo Verhoeven.
Under a Creative Commons license. Abstract Word reading and spelling processes are assumed to be highly related to each other and to early literacy measures. Keywords Spelling development. As a consequence, the latter cannot be left unpronounced. Moving south to the Dutch-speaking Belgium, the set of adjectival inflectional endings becomes much richer.
When occurring in attributive constructions, no ending apparently follows the root-final consonant either. However, rather than undergoing devoicing, the coronal consonant turns into a glide:. As in the case of the PRS. As a consequence, the root-final stop gets devoiced. By virtue of it being integrated in the phonological structure, the phonological process of intervocalic weakening can apply to the root-final stop, which turns into a glide. As a consequence, it triggers intervocalic weakening and is audible. A similar approach also holds for the Limburg dialects data shown below.
In these dialects, feminine, plural and neuter attributive adjectives all lack the schwa ending. Nevertheless, feminine and plural adjectives contrast with neuter adjectives Van Oostendorp ; Hermans Given the absence of any ending, the contrast needs to be expressed in another way: the tonal profile. As shown in 21 , whereas neuter adjectives display Accent 1, feminine, schwa-less adjectives display Accent 2, namely the same tonal profile of masculine adjectives, which crucially end in schwa 22 :.
In adjectives, the empty morpheme presumably marks the feminine gender in attributive position, because in this position all adjective have Accent 1, provided their stem ends in a voiced consonant. In verbs, the empty vowel presumably marks the present tense in strong verbs, because all strong verbs have Accent 1 in the present tense, provided, of course, their stem ends in a voiced consonant and no other overt suffix follows. Finally, in nouns it denotes class membership. As we pointed out in section 1, there is quite some morphosyntactic literature about zero inflection, which suffers from the problem that it assumes that certain forms have no inflectional ending, simply because there is no audible exponent.
When the presence of a zero morpheme is instead argued for, phonetic silence is usually equated to phonological emptiness. However, as discussed in the previous section, the absence of an audible signal does not mean that there is no phonological material. In this paper, we suggested that, by closely inspecting the representational nature of zero morphemes — e. As for the upper phonology interface, syntax is known to be usually insensitive to phonological material there are no syntactic rules that refer to labiality or to voiced consonants. How does emptiness fit this picture?
Are empty phonological objects any different from filled ones? Scheer , after careful consideration of all possible counterexamples to the so-called phonology-free syntax hypothesis, such as heavy NP shift, points out that these always seem to involve phonological weight: it is the size of phonological constituents that seems to matter.
Van Oostendorp, Putnam and Smith point out that this relation is indeed mutual, and that phonology also only sees syntactic structure mostly edges of constituent structure , and no syntactic features. Given these observations, however, we do not expect empty elements to be any different at all from filled elements. There is no specific reason why an element with no features should show a different morphosyntactic behaviour from other elements.
There is no specific reason why the skeletal slots should behave any differently in the syntax if they have no features, and we have seen that they do not. In this sense, then, phonological emptiness is irrelevant for morphosyntax. However, we have also observed at several places that within the phonology, we need to distinguish between empty elements i.
The Limburg examples discussed at the end of the previous section are an example of this: if an empty element is a morpheme, it tends to have more phonological licensing power. Note that under such a recoverability analysis, the emptiness of certain morphemes or even function words is irrelevant for morphosyntax proper: it is a property of the interface between morphosyntax and phonology.
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But, paradoxically, this irrelevance means that phonologically null elements should not be underestimated: to the contrary, one needs to be on the constant lookout for these elements and their internal complexity. The former — syncretism — is broader, and deals the question whether two apparently identical exponents express the same meaning, or they rather represent two accidentally homophonous forms.
The latter — zero morphemes — can be relevant to the former inasmuch as the presence of apparently empty morphemes can wrongly suggest the presence of a syncretic pattern see below , but not necessarily, for zero morphemes can e. Furthermore, syncretic patterns can result from the partial deletion of a marker, rather than of the entire marker in this case, it would be impossible to talk about zero morpheme.
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For example, it could help us decide whether particular instances of deletion should be considered as occurring in the narrow syntax or at PF. Note that, in the case that deletion happened in narrow syntax, this would bleed vocabulary insertion. If, on the other hand, deletion happened at PF, then the formal properties of PF need to be explicitly laid out.
Assuming that phonetics and phonology are different modules Scheer , the domains in which the role of silence needs to be investigated should include the mapping of a phonological form to the relevant piece of morphosyntactic structure as well as, as shown below, to its phonetic interpretation, for the absence of acoustic material does not necessarily imply the absence of phonological structure, just like the absence of phonological structure does not necessarily imply the absence of syntactic material.
That means, in turn, that if we can show that an element has to be assumed phonologically, it should also be granted existence at the morphosyntactic level. However, this is not necessarily true for every linguistic object. See, for instance, intrusive and epenthetic vowels Hall ; ; Cavirani , which can be argued to be empty at the phonological and morphosyntactic, and morphosyntactic level, respectively. Another instance of such an object is the word-final empty nucleus predicted by phonological theories such as Government Phonology Kaye et al.
It is not clear yet, though, whether they should be considered cases of phonological or phonetic deletion. Further research is needed see also Hartmann et al. However, even within this framework, cases can be found in which this equivalence is proposed and, as a matter of fact, exploited. In later works, though, it has been replaced by Correspondence, in which input and output are considered two independent representations.
This allows for a one-to-many relationship between the elements of the two representations and, as a consequence, for operations such as coalescence multiple input element — single output element , fission single input element — multiple output elements , insertion no input element — one output element and, crucially, deletion one input element — no output element.
Note that Turbidity Theory is not committed to any specific theory of subsegmental representation: the input-out mapping mechanism would stay the same whatever feature one wants to adopt.
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Thus, in order to avoid unnecessarily complicated representations, in the rest of the paper we will use segments. These dialects are spoken in the East Fp, Mp and Gp and display a - en marker for all the persons. Furthermore, in inverted contexts, we also find PRS. This variation can also be found in other verbs. For instance, in the test sentence nr. The - t suffix occurs also in test sentences nr.
The selection steps for the data were described reasonably well in the paper, so it was relatively easy to reproduce their procedure. Still we have been unable to extract the same data set. We found three main differences:. Lokeren and Beekbergen , PRS. Lokeren and Diksmuide , PRS. For PRS.