A similar level of animosity came to the forefront when it was announced that Zendaya , the former Disney Channel star, would be playing Mary Jane Watson in the upcoming Spider-Man: Homecoming. Both Iris and Mary Jane are long-running female characters intrinsically tied to the stories of their superhero partners; they are also some of the most superhero fantasies that readers can identify with, or desire for themselves. That DC and Marvel have decided to disrupt these fantasies is why the casting receives so much backlash.
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Despite being about a black hero with a primarily black and Latino cast, which is been true in the comics as well, a subsection of fans feel that the show itself is racist for not including white people. This summer, when SNL writer and Ghostbusters star Leslie Jones faced criticism for starring in an innocuous reboot of a mediocre but beloved s franchise, her website was hacked, nude pictures leaked without her consent, and an onslaught of vile racist comments were sent her way on Twitter.
This phenomenon extends far beyond actresses to even the women who cover these films and TV shows. Look through the mentions of any female journalist who covers geek properties and you will find an onslaught of vile responses no matter how mild her coverage.
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For black women this dynamic is even worse. I never had to block so many people on Twitter until I covered Suicide Squad this summer. I love that stuff about them. Frankly, I find it offensive at this idea that women of color somehow need a planet to live on. We are out here doing it for ourselves! I am an ally to women of color, OK?! But then, when the earth is a smoldering, inhospitable husk, you can kiss institutional racism and sexism goodbye! And as we all take our last gasps of breath, we can thank me for being on the right side of history. In a survey put out by the National Violence Against Women organization, about 24 percent of Hispanic and Latina women are abused domestically by an intimate partner during their lifetimes.
In regard to immigration, "48 percent of Latinas reported that their partner's violence increased since immigrating to the United States". It is socially unacceptable to be divorced, to marry several times, or to remain single and have children out of wedlock. For these reasons, it may take some time for battered women to consider leaving their partners". Latina and Hispanic women are often "concentrated in low-paying, semiskilled occupations in contrast to the overall workforce.
Their limited finances and proficiencies create barriers for women trying to escape abuse and obtain legal assistance". Communities of color that are referred to as the "tribal land" were disproportionately impacted by the criminal justice system. However, cases of violence against indigenous women living on tribal land in the U. As a result, men who were U. In these situations, VAWA failed to protect women living on tribal land. However, in a renewal was passed that addressed these issues, although many say that there needs to be further legislation.
In Patriarchy, the System , Allan G. Johnson defines the term "patriarchy" as a set of symbols and ideas that make up a culture embodied by everything from the content of everyday conversation to literature and film. Johnson continues by discussing how the patriarchy regulates the way social life is expected to be and what it is about: it is male-centered, male-identified and male-dominated.
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Women of color are the majority of those who are oppressed by this system. Johnson notes that we all participate in the system and will always be a part of it. We can only control how we participate in the patriarchy.
The common picture of someone with power is a white, heterosexual male. The structure of the patriarchy exists in the unequal distributions of power, opportunities, resources, and rewards. This is what makes male dominance possible. When we assess the social norms around us, the involvement of the patriarchy becomes clear.
Johnson gives excellent examples: the standards of feminine beauty and masculine toughness, the media portrayal of feminine vulnerability and masculine protectiveness, acceptance of older men involved with younger women and elderly women alone, a career as primary for a husband, childcare being a priority for women and secondary for men, defining men and women as opposites, the acceptance of male aggression as natural but not for women, and the devaluing of femininity and being female.
Although all women are affected, women of color suffer more than anyone else within this system. According to numerous studies, women of color encounter different experiences in business and the work force than Caucasian women. A study by Boyd suggests that when looking for jobs, women of color have less chance of acquiring a job than other groups. Furthermore, finding a job is even more difficult for women of color when there are fewer jobs available or when the economy is not doing well.
For example, during The Great Depression , a time of immense economic struggle in the United States, vast numbers of black women were dismissed from their jobs at proportionally higher rate than white women. This in turn affected the families and livelihoods of the women of color as income become harder to obtain.
The lack of availability of jobs and discrimination against these women forced them into unemployment in greater numbers than men of color.
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But, when the resources and opportunities are present, women of color have found solace in building their own businesses and becoming entrepreneurs. However, Loscocco and Robinson claim that when women of color open their small businesses, their chances of success are much slimmer than for men.
People usually open their own businesses after losing their jobs or as a result of annoyance with their prior professional positions in which they could have encountered discrimination, sexual harassment, and other disturbances. There has been an increase in the number of women pursuing self-employment within businesses of their own in recent decades. But, although having similar motives and displaying comparable skill sets as men, women have had less success within their businesses. Women are also subjected to opening a business within a limited number of fields and cannot usually venture into areas deemed as more masculine such as construction or carpentry, where they face the risk of failure.
In their study of women's business ventures, Loscocco and Robinson note that "while gender segregation explains a large part of women's disadvantage, as expected, we find that U.
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Mora and Davila find that "minority- and female-owned new firms thus had a higher risk of closing down within one year than those owned by non-Hispanic white men; being a female entrepreneur of color exacerbated this risk. Bell finds that "racism and sexism are forces that serve to heighten black women's psychological anxiety.
Due to the contemporary socio-psychological forces and the historical legacy of slavery, it is extremely complicated for black women to separate the subtleties of sexism and racism. Consequently, the intersectionality of the identities of women of color plays a grand role in their presence in business and the workforce. In her study, Adia Harvey observes that "the intersection of race, gender, and class often leaves minority women with limited occupational opportunities Ammott and Matthei ; Browne ; Browne and Misra ; England ; Higginbotham and Romero Minority women, particularly African American women, are disproportionately concentrated in the service industry as cooks, janitors, and cashiers Hesse-Biber and Carter Institutional discrimination, widespread acceptance of stereotypes, glass ceilings, and poverty are all structural causes that lead to the occupational segregation of working-class black women Browne and Kennelly ; Browne The dual influence of race and gender means that African American women generally trail black men, white women, and white men in earnings, prestige, and power in the workplace.
Many studies draw attention to the institutionalized racial- and gender-based barriers in the labor force that shape black women's occupational patterns and experiences. Browne and Kennelly argue that stereotypes of black women as irresponsible single mothers can cloud employers' treatment of black women workers.
Similarly, St. Jean and Feagin assert that while some employers view black women as less threatening than black men, this does not translate into a perception that black women are competent, professional, adept workers. Instead, they must prove their capabilities repeatedly and are routinely subjected to racist and sexist hostilities, lack of mentoring opportunities, and discriminatory treatment in the workplace.
Still other researchers argue that black women workers are likely to experience feelings of marginalization, dissonance, and alienation in predominantly white male workplaces Alfred ; Bell and Nokomo ; Bonner From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Society Pages. Retrieved Johnson Wore, Judith ed. Ann Howard Journal of Communication. Lopez, Lori Kido ed. Asian American Media Activism. Fighting for Cultural Citizenship.
NYU Press. South Asian Minorities and the Mainstream Media. Hong Kong University Press. Communication Research Reports. Indie Wire.
The New York Times. Journal of African American Studies.